Bahasa Melayu : Artritis / Malayalam : സന്ധിവാതം (Sandhivaatham) / സന്ധിവീക്കം (Sandhiveekkam) / Telugu : కీళ్ళవాపు (Kīḷḷavāpu) / Français : Arthrite
Last Updated by Master 16 June 2014 (Mon) - 02:58 AM (GMT+8):
Osteoarthritis (Arthritis or Joint Pain): • Arthritis affects the joints causing severe pain • This pain can make a person immobile • It is one of the most common joint disorders which occurs with age Symptoms to look for: • Swelling and pain in the affected joint • Cracking noise on any joint movement • Constant stiffness Causes: • Wear and tear of the cartilage, a cushion between the bones and joints, • Increases the friction between the bones • Leads to stiffness and pain in the joints • Overweight • Injury • Excessive exercising • Hereditary factors Natural home remedy using potato: 1. Wash and cut an unpeeled potato into thin slices 2. Soak them in water overnight 3. Strain the water in the morning 4. Drink it first thing in the morning on an empty stomach Natural home remedy using mustard oil and camphor: 1. Heat 1 cup of mustard oil 2. Add 10 g of camphor 3. Heat till camphor dissolves completely 4. Massage with the oil when lukewarm • This increases the blood supply and reduces inflammation and stiffness Natural home remedy using sesame seeds: 1. Take 100 ml of water 2. Soak 1 tsp of black sesame seeds in it overnight 3. Consume this mixture in the morning Natural home remedy using cinnamon powder and honey: 1. Take 1 tsp of cinnamon powder 2. Add 1 tbsp of honey 3. Mix well 4. Have this on an empty stomach every morning
Natural Remedies for Arthritis - Home Treatment for Arthritis
As a disease affecting the joints, arthritis is marked by painfulness, and swelling of joints. There are various kinds of arthritis; but the common ones include "osteoarthritis"," rheumatoid arthritis "and "septic arthritis". Irrespective of their variety, the common symptoms of arthritis are pain and stiffness around the inflated joints. These in turn give way to inflexibility, immobility and muscular debility. In certain cases of intense inflammation; it leads to fever, general feeling of tiredness and lack of sleep.
Besides physiotherapy, exercises and adoption of healthy life style; treatment of arthritis often involves surgical procedures. But surgical option is generally embarked upon as a last resort to solve extreme cases. There are quite a few home remedial options which work fine as treatment for this chronic joint disorder.
Effective Natural Treatment for Arthritis
Listed below are some effective arthritis home remedies which are found to be useful in arthritis cure and arthritis pain relief. Natural treatment for arthritis is also without side effects.
■ As part of the dietary regimen, it is imperative that patients of arthritis choose a diet that will contribute to the alkaline content of blood. Diet rich in raw vegetables, sprouts and juicy fruits should be opted for in place of one rich in animal protein, carbohydrate and fat.
■ Sometimes in course of therapy, patients are recommended diet solely consisting of raw vegetables and fruits.
■ Sea water has been found effective in relieving painfulness and stiffness of the affected joints. The iodine content of sea water not only helps to balance the pH of the body but also positively influences the thyroid functioning. Thus bathing in sea water can be recommended for patients struck by arthritis.
■ As an alternative, patient may be advised to take a dip into warm water enriched with common salt.
■ Special care should be taken to exposure oneself to sunlight and ambience marked by proper ventilation.
■ Drinking water stored in copper content proves to be beneficial from the point of view of arthritis patients as traces of copper accumulation making its way to the system contributes to strengthening the skeletal and muscular system.
■ Calcium supplements as well as calcium taken as 'calcium lactate' serves to strengthen bones and muscles.
■ Garlic with its multi sided medicinal qualities is also useful for arthritis. Consumption of two to three cloves of garlic work wonder against inflammation leading to aching joints.
■ Besides garlic, ginger is also effective from the point of view of rheumatic arthritis. Consumption of at least thirty to fifty grams of ginger serves to reduce the painful conditions.
■ Juice extracted from potato is similarly beneficial if consumed before breakfast. One may also soak sliced potato along with its peel in a bowl filled with water for drinking the water used for soaking potato slices.
■ Water soaking sesame seeds can be had early in the morning along with the seed being soaked. The remedy will make your joint pains infrequent.
■ Pineapple juice is also an effective natural option on account of its 'bromelain' content which serves to reduce swelling and pain.
■ Though animal protein is not recommended the Omega3 fatty acids of certain oily fish proves to be beneficial from the view point of arthritis. Supplements of the same or food rich in Omega 3 fatty acid can be taken.
■ One table spoon measure of cod liver oil may be added to a glass filled with orange juice. The said mixture will assure you of the requisite nutrients in forms of Vitamin C and Omega 3 fatty acid.
■ Juice extracted from raw vegetables such as celery, spinach and carrot blended in equal measure is also one of the healthy options which serve to clear blood of the accumulated deposits.
■ Coconut water and milk of the same are equally beneficial as natural remedial measures
■ While the consumption of tea and coffee should be reduced, as an alternative option you may go for herbal tea. Herbal tea based on alfalfa has been found to be beneficial from the point of view of arthritis.
■ Regular consumption of banana is also beneficial because Vitamin B content of the fruit acts against stiffness of joints.
■ Soup made out of green gram is another of your naturally nourishing options which works wonders if consumed regularly with crushed cloves of garlic.
■ For soothing and instantaneous relief from joint pains; application of tolerably warm coconut or mustard oil enriched with crushed camphor proves to be relieving.
■ Circulation around the affected tissues can be enhanced with the help of massaging of herbal oils such as lemon, rosemerry, lavender and chamomile. Thus gentle massaging of the mentioned oils will prove to be relieving.
■ Gentle massaging of castor oil is also similarly beneficial.
■ Applying mildly hot compresses of apple vinegar before pushing off to bed can also serve to keep your joints warm and soothing.
Besides adopting the mentioned elements; patients down with arthritis are advised to keep themselves sufficiently mobile as lack of movement adds to pain and joint stiffness. In fact, certain yogic exercises and postures are equally beneficial to keep one sufficiently agile in spite of arthritis.
Last Updated by Master 16 June 2014 (Mon) - 02:58 AM (GMT+8):
Hands affected by rheumatoid arthritis, an autoimmune form of arthritis
ICD-9 710 -719
eMedicine topic list
Arthritis ( from Greek arthro-, joint + -itis, inflammation; plural: arthritides ) is a form of joint disorder that involves inflammation of one or more joints. There are over 100 different forms of arthritis. The most common form, osteoarthritis ( degenerative joint disease ), is a result of trauma to the joint, infection of the joint, or age. Other arthritis forms are rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, and related autoimmune diseases. Septic arthritis is caused by joint infection.
The major complaint by individuals who have arthritis is joint pain. Pain is often a constant and may be localized to the joint affected. The pain from arthritis is due to inflammation that occurs around the joint, damage to the joint from disease, daily wear and tear of joint, muscle strains caused by forceful movements against stiff painful joints and fatigue.
There are several diseases where joint pain is primary, and is considered the main feature. Generally when a person has "arthritis" it means that they have one of these diseases, which include :
Gout and pseudo-gout
Juvenile idiopathic arthritis
Joint pain can also be a symptom of other diseases. In this case, the arthritis is considered to be secondary to the main disease; these include :
Psoriasis ( Psoriatic arthritis )
Inflammatory bowel disease ( including Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis )
Hyperimmunoglobulinemia D with recurrent fever
TNF receptor associated periodic syndrome
Wegener's granulomatosis ( and many other vasculitis syndromes )
Familial Mediterranean fever
Systemic lupus erythematosus
An undifferentiated arthritis is an arthritis that does not fit into well-known clinical disease categories, possibly being an early stage of a definite rheumatic disease.
Signs and symptomsExtra-articular features of joint disease
Cutaneous vasculitis lesions
Tenosynovitis (tendon sheath effusions)
Bursitis (swollen bursa)
Regardless of the type of arthritis, the common symptoms for all arthritis disorders include varied levels of pain, swelling, joint stiffness, and sometimes a constant ache around the joint(s). Arthritic disorders like lupus and rheumatoid can also affect other organs in the body with a variety of symptoms.
Inability to use the hand or walk
Malaise and a feeling of tiredness
Muscle aches and pains
Difficulty moving the joint
It is common in advanced arthritis for significant secondary changes to occur. For example, in someone who has limited their physical activity:
Loss of flexibility
Decreased aerobic fitness
These changes can also impact on life and social roles, such as community involvement.
Arthritis is the most common cause of disability in the USA. More than 20 million individuals with arthritis have severe limitations in function on a daily basis. Absenteeism and frequent visits to the physician are common in individuals who have arthritis. Arthritis makes it very difficult for individuals to be physically active and some become home bound.
It is estimated that the total cost of arthritis cases is close to $100 billion of which nearly 50% is from lost earnings. Each year, arthritis results in nearly 1 million hospitalizations and close to 45 million outpatient visits to health care centers.
Arthritis can make it very difficult for an individual to remain physically active, contributing to an increased risk of obesity, high cholesterol or vulnerability to heart disease. Individuals with arthritis are also at increased risk of depression, which may be related to fear of worsening symptoms.
Diagnosis is made by clinical examination from an appropriate health professional, and may be supported by other tests such as radiology and blood tests, depending on the type of suspected arthritis. All arthritides potentially feature pain. Pain patterns may differ depending on the arthritides and the location. Rheumatoid arthritis is generally worse in the morning and associated with stiffness; in the early stages, patients often have no symptoms after a morning shower. Osteoarthritis, on the other hand, tends to be worse after exercise. In the aged and children, pain might not be the main presenting feature; the aged patient simply moves less, the infantile patient refuses to use the affected limb.
Elements of the history of the disorder guide diagnosis. Important features are speed and time of onset, pattern of joint involvement, symmetry of symptoms, early morning stiffness, tenderness, gelling or locking with inactivity, aggravating and relieving factors, and other systemic symptoms. Physical examination may confirm the diagnosis, or may indicate systemic disease. Radiographs are often used to follow progression or help assess severity.
Osteoarthritis is the most common form of arthritis. It can affect both the larger and the smaller joints of the body, including the hands, feet, back, hip, and knee. The disease is essentially one acquired from daily wear and tear of the joint; however, osteoarthritis can also occur as a result of injury. Osteoarthritis begins in the cartilage and eventually causes the two opposing bones to erode into each other. Initially, the condition starts with minor pain during activities, but soon the pain can be continuous and even occur while in a state of rest. The pain can be debilitating and prevent one from doing some activities. Osteoarthritis typically affects the weight-bearing joints, such as the back, spine, and pelvis. Unlike rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis is most commonly a disease of the elderly. More than 30 percent of women have some degree of osteoarthritis by age 65. Risk factors for osteoarthritis include prior joint trauma, obesity, and a sedentary lifestyle.
Osteoarthritis, like rheumatoid arthritis, cannot be cured, but one can prevent the condition from worsening. Physical therapy to strengthen muscles and joints is very helpful. Pain medications are widely required by individuals with osteoarthritis. For some patients, weight loss can reduce the stress on the joints. When the disease is far advanced and the pain is continuous, surgery may be an option. Unlike rheumatoid arthritis, joint replacement does help many individuals with osteoarthritis.
Rheumatoid arthritis is a disorder in which the body's own immune system starts to attack body tissues. The attack is not only directed at the joint but to many other parts of the body. In rheumatoid arthritis, most damage occurs to the joint lining and cartilage which eventually results in erosion of two opposing bones. Rheumatoid arthritis often affects joints in the fingers, wrists, knees and elbows. The disease is symmetrical (appears on both sides of the body) and can lead to severe deformity in a few years if not treated. Rheumatoid arthritis occurs mostly in people aged 20 and above. In children, the disorder can present with a skin rash, fever, pain, disability, and limitations in daily activities. Often, it is not clear why the rheumatoid arthritis occurred. With earlier diagnosis and aggressive treatment, many individuals can lead a decent quality of life. The drugs to treat rheumatoid arthritis range from corticosteroids to monoclonal antibodies given intravenously. The latest drugs like Remicade can significantly improve quality of life in the short term. In rare cases, surgery may be required to replace joints but there is no cure for the illness.
Lupus is a common collagen vascular disorder that can be present with severe arthritis. Other features of lupus include a skin rash, extreme photosensitivity, hair loss, kidney problems, lung fibrosis and constant joint pain.
Gout is caused by deposition of uric acid crystals in the joint, causing inflammation. There is also an uncommon form of gouty arthritis caused by the formation of rhomboid crystals of calcium pyrophosphate known as pseudogout. In the early stages, the gouty arthritis usually occurs in one joint, but with time, it can occur in many joints and be quite crippling. The joints in gout can often become swollen and lose function. Gouty arthritis can become particularly painful and potentially debilitating when gout cannot successfully be treated. When uric acid levels and gout symptoms cannot be controlled with standard gout medicines that decrease the production of uric acid (e.g., allopurinol, febuxostat) or increase uric acid elimination from the body through the kidneys (e.g., probenecid), this can be referred to as refractory chronic gout or RCG.
Comparison of some major forms of arthritisOsteoarthritis Rheumatoid arthritis Gouty arthritis Speed of onset Months Weeks-months Hours for an attack Main locations Weight-bearing joints Hands (proximal interphalangeal Great toe, ankles, (such as knees, hips, and metacarpophalangeal joint) knees and elbows vertebral column) and hands wrists, ankles and knees Inflammation May occur, though often mild Yes Yes compared to inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis Radiologic changes -Narrowed joint space -Narrowed joint space -"Punched out" bone erosions -Osteophytes -Bone erosions -Local osteosclerosis -Subchondral cysts Laboratory findings None Anemia, elevated ESR and Crystal in joints C-reactive protein (CRP), rheumatoid factor, anti-citrullinated protein antibody Other features No systemic signs Extra-articular features Tophi Bouchard's and Heberden's nodes are common Nephrolithiasis Ulnar deviation, swan neck- and Boutonniere deformity of the hand
Infectious arthritis is another severe form of arthritis. It presents with sudden onset of chills, fever and joint pain. The condition is caused by bacteria elsewhere in the body. Infectious arthritis must be rapidly diagnosed and treated promptly to prevent irreversible joint damage.
Psoriasis can develop into psoriatic arthritis. With psoriatic arthritis, most individuals develop the skin problem first and then the arthritis. The typical features are of continuous joint pains, stiffness and swelling. The disease does recur with periods of remission but there is no cure for the disorder. A small percentage develop a severe painful and destructive form of arthritis which destroys the small joints in the hands and can lead to permanent disability and loss of hand function.
There is no cure for either rheumatoid or osteoarthritis. Treatment options vary depending on the type of arthritis and include physical therapy, lifestyle changes ( including exercise and weight control ), orthopedic bracing, medications. Joint replacement surgery may be required in eroding forms of arthritis. Medications can help reduce inflammation in the joint which decreases pain. Moreover, by decreasing inflammation, the joint damage may be slowed.
Physical and occupational therapy
In general, studies have shown that physical exercise of the affected joint can have noticeable improvement in terms of long-term pain relief. Furthermore, exercise of the arthritic joint is encouraged to maintain the health of the particular joint and the overall body of the person.
Individuals with arthritis can benefit from both physical and occupational therapy. In arthritis the joints become stiff and the range of movement can be limited. Physical therapy has been shown to significantly improve function, decrease pain, and delay need for surgical intervention in advanced cases. Exercise prescribed by a physical therapist has been shown to be more effective than medications in treating osteoarthritis of the knee. Exercise often focuses on improving muscle strength, endurance and flexibility. In some cases, exercises may be designed to train balance. Occupational therapy can provide assistance with activities as well as equipment.
There are several types of medications that are used for the treatment of arthritis. Treatment typically begins with medications that have the fewest side effects with further medications being added if insufficiently effective.
Treatment also depends on the type of the arthritis. For example, the first-line treatment for osteoarthritis is acetaminophen ( paracetamol ) while for inflammatory arthritis it involves non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs like ibuprofen.
Arthritis is predominantly a disease of the elderly, but children can also be affected by the disease. More than 70% of individuals in North America affected by arthritis are over the age of 65. Arthritis is more common in women than men at all ages and affects all races, ethnic groups and cultures. In the United States a CDC survey based on data from 2007–2009 showed 22.2% (49.9 million) of adults aged ≥18 years had self-reported doctor-diagnosed arthritis, and 9.4% (21.1 million or 42.4% of those with arthritis) had arthritis-attributable activity limitation (AAAL). With an aging population this number is expected to increase.
While evidence of primary ankle (kaki) osteoarthritis has been discovered in dinosaurs, the first known traces of human arthritis date back as far as 4500 BC. In early reports, arthritis was frequently referred to as the most common ailment of prehistoric peoples. It was noted in skeletal remains of Native Americans found in Tennessee and parts of what is now Olathe, Kansas. Evidence of arthritis has been found throughout history, from Ötzi, a mummy (circa 3000 BC) found along the border of modern Italy and Austria, to the Egyptian mummies circa 2590 BC.
In 1715 William Musgrave published the second edition of his most important medical work De arthritide symptomatica which concerned arthritis and its effects.
Blood tests and X-rays of the affected joints often are performed to make the diagnosis. Screening blood tests are indicated if certain arthritides are suspected. These might include: rheumatoid factor, antinuclear factor (ANF), extractable nuclear antigen, and specific antibodies.
( Neutrophilia )
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